A scalable value transfer protocol for the digital economy

10k tx/secminimal latencynegligible fees
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ADAPTIVE STATE SHARDING

Comparable in throughput as to centralized counterparts.

Our architecture goes beyond state of the art and can be seen as an augmentation of the existing models, improving the performance while focusing to achieve a better nash equilibrium state between security, scalability and decentralization.

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SECURE PROOF OF STAKE

Minimal energy and computational requirements.

Elrond eliminates the need for intensive PoW consensus algorithms and proposes a novel and more robust Secure Proof of Stake consensus, enhancing intra-shard communication and pruning the blockchain state to the most essential.

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DECENTRALIZED

Increased security due to the randomly selected block proposer.

Elrond introduces an improvement which adds security and reduces latency, allowing each node in the shard to determine the members of the consensus group (block proposer and validators) at the beginning of a round. This is possible because the last block’s aggregated signature is used as the randomization factor.

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COMMUNICATION

Decentralizing cross-blockchain operations.

The Elrond Virtual Machine’s implementation will hide the underlying architecture isolating the smart contract developers from system internals ensuring a proper abstraction layer. In Elrond, cross chain interoperability can be implemented by using an adapter mechanism at the Virtual Machine level. This approach requires specialized adapters for each chain that is non EVM compatible and wants to operate with Elrond.

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THE FUTURE IS ALREADY HERE

Elrond Prototype - validating state sharding architecture

Theory is always nice, but practice is a lot better - check our working prototype. Through this first implementation we validate our state sharding hypothesis and test our model of cross-shard transactions.

MEET THE TEAM

A strong team determined on making things happen.

Beniamin Mincu
CEO
Lucian Todea
COO
Lucian Mincu
CIO
Felix Crisan
HEAD OF RESEARCH
Radu Chis
HEAD OF TECHNOLOGY
Adrian Dobrita
HEAD OF ENGINEERING
Sebastian Marian
CORE DEVELOPER
Iulian Pascalau
CORE DEVELOPER
Mihai Dorian Stancu
SOFTWARE ENGINEER
Corcoveanu Cristian
SOFTWARE ENGINEER
Andrei Marinica
SOFTWARE ENGINEER
Camil Ioan Bancioiu
RESEARCHER
SEE THE REST OF THE TEAM
MEET OUR ADVISORS

Advisors with relevant experience supporting the team.

Raul Jordan
TECHNICAL ADVISOR
Fabio C. Canesin
TECHNICAL ADVISOR
Ethan Fast
TECHNICAL ADVISOR
Sunny Aggarwal
TECHNICAL ADVISOR
Alex Iskold
BUSINESS ADVISOR
Alex Tabarrok
ECONOMICS ADVISOR
Andrei Pitis
BUSINESS ADVISOR
Patrick Storchenegger
LEGAL ADVISOR
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Frequently Asked Questions

Elrond is a complete rethinking of public blockchain infrastructure, specifically designed to be secure, efficient, scalable and interoperable. Elrond’s main contribution rests on two cornerstone building blocks:

1) A genuine State Sharding approach: effectively partitioning the chain state into multiple shards, handled in parallel by different participating validators;
2) Secure Proof of Stake consensus mechanism: an improved variation of Proof of Stake (PoS) that ensures long term security and distributed fairness, while eliminating the need for energy intensive PoW algorithms.
In Elrond the throughput increases linearly with the number of shards in the network.

Sharding is a scaling technique inspired by traditional concepts of database optimization. Also known as horizontal partitioning, sharding divides the data into several pieces placed on different environments to be processed.

The more validators and shards, the more transactions the network can process. Elrond is performing all network services with minimal energy and computational requirements.
Sharding is a scaling technique inspired by traditional concepts of database optimization. Also known as horizontal partitioning, sharding divides the data into several pieces placed on different environments to be processed.

In a blockchain context, breaking the network into shards would result in more transactions being processed, verified and validated simultaneously. Each sharding level introduces a certain degree of parallelism, as a result, it becomes possible to process more transactions as the network grows. Implementing any sharding type on a blockchain architecture is extremely difficult.

We can identify 3 sharding types (levels):
1. Network Sharding represents the process of grouping the nodes into shards.
2. Transaction Sharding takes the complexity to the next level and deals with the distribution of transactions across different shards, but all the nodes keep the entire blockchain into their state.
3. State sharding represents the most sophisticated part and is described as a mechanism that allows different shards to deal only with a portion of the state without replicating the data between nodes from different shards. A state sharded blockchain can be seen as a network of fully interconnected blockchains.

In order to match the current scalability needs, Elrond introduces a novel state sharding scheme, called Adaptive State Sharding, with a dynamic model that allows the network to adapt to population and demand changes without compromising security, availability and decentralization.
In general, Proof of Stake (PoS) concept states that a node’s probability to validate block transactions is proportional to how many tokens it is staking.
Secure Proof of Stake consensus mechanism expands on Algorand’s idea of a random selection mechanism for the validators, differentiating itself through the following aspects:

• Elrond proposes an improvement which reduces the latency allowing each node in the shard to determine the members of the consensus group (block proposer and validators) at the beginning of a round. This is possible because the last block's aggregated signature is used as the randomization factor. In contrast to Algorand’s approach, where the random committee selection can take up to 12 sec, in Elrond the time necessary for random selection of the consensus group is considerably reduced (estimated under 100 ms).

• In addition, Elrond refines its consensus mechanism by adding a additional weight factor called rating. The node’s probability to be selected in the consensus group takes into consideration both stake and rating, promoting meritocracy.

• Elrond uses Bellare and Neven multisignature scheme, which eliminates one communication round in the signing algorithm.
• Compared to Ethereum, Elrond eliminates both energy and computational waste from PoW algorithms by implementing a SPoS consensus while using transaction processing parallelism through sharding.

• Compared to Algorand, Elrond doesn’t have a single blockchain, instead it increases transaction’s throughput using sharding. Elrond also improves on Algorand’s idea of random selection by reducing the selection time of the consensus group from max 12 seconds to less than a second, but assumes that the adversaries cannot adapt within a round.

• Compared to Zilliqa, Elrond pushes the limits of sharding by using not only transaction sharding but also state sharding. Elrond completely eliminates the PoW mechanism and uses SPoS for consensus. Both architectures are building their own smart contract engine, but Elrond aims for EVM compliance to to achieve interoperability between blockchains.